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ENZYME

Pronunciation (US): 

 Dictionary entry overview: What does enzyme mean? 

ENZYME (noun)
  The noun ENZYME has 1 sense:

1. any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

  Familiarity information: ENZYME used as a noun is very rare.


 Dictionary entry details 


ENZYME (noun)


Sense 1enzyme [BACK TO TOP]

Meaning:

Any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

Classified under:

Nouns denoting substances

Hypernyms ("enzyme" is a kind of...):

accelerator; catalyst ((chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected)

protein (any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes)

Meronyms (parts of "enzyme"):

active site (the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs)

Hyponyms (each of the following is a kind of "enzyme"):

zymase (a complex of enzymes that cause glycolysis; originally found in yeast but also present in higher organisms)

polymerase (an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA)

fibrinolysin; plasmin (an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots)

phosphatase (any of a group of enzymes that act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of organic phosphates)

pepsinogen (precursor of pepsin; stored in the stomach walls and converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid in the stomach)

pepsin (an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones)

beta-lactamase; penicillinase (enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates penicillin and results in resistance to that antibiotic)

papain (a proteolytic enzyme obtained from the unripe papaya; used as a meat tenderizer)

oxidoreductase (an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation-reduction)

peptidase; protease; proteinase; proteolytic enzyme (any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis)

reductase (an enzyme that catalyses the biochemical reduction of some specified substance)

chymosin; rennin (an enzyme that occurs in gastric juice; causes milk to coagulate)

urease (an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia; is present in intestinal bacteria)

trypsin (an enzyme of pancreatic origin; catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins to smaller polypeptide units)

transferase (any of various enzymes that move a chemical group from one compound to another compound)

telomerase (an enzyme in eukaryotic cells that can add telomeres to the ends of chromosomes after they divide)

SOD; superoxide dismutase (an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen)

streptokinase (an enzyme produced by some strains of streptococcus that can liquefy blood clots by converting plasminogen to plasmin; used medicinally in some cases of myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism)

streptodornase (an enzyme produced by some hemolytic strains of streptococcus that dissolves fibrinous secretions from infections; used medicinally (often in combination with streptokinase))

secretase (a set of enzymes believed to snip pieces off a longer protein producing fragments of amyloid protein that bunch up and create amyloid protein plaques in brain tissue (the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's))

oxidase (any of the enzymes that catalyze biological oxidation)

nuclease (general term for enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleic acid by cleaving chains of nucleotides into smaller units)

nitrogenase (an enzyme of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that catalyzes the conversion of nitrogen to ammonia)

decarboxylase (any of the enzymes that hydrolize the carboxyl group)

Cox; cyclooxygenase (either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin)

catalase (enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that functions as an oxidative catalyst; decomposes hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water)

complement (one of a series of enzymes in the blood serum that are part of the immune response)

collagenase (any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of collagen and gelatin)

coagulase (an enzyme that induces coagulation)

cholinesterase (an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine (into choline and acetic acid))

amylase (any of a group of proteins found in saliva and pancreatic juice and parts of plants; help convert starch to sugar)

de-iodinase (an enzyme that removes the iodine radical)

disaccharidase (an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of disaccharides into monosaccharides)

elastase (a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of elastin)

MAO; monoamine oxidase (an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of many body compounds (e.g., epinephrine and norepinephrine and serotonin))

lysozyme; muramidase (an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria)

lipase (an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream)

kinase (an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme)

isomerase (an enzyme that catalyzes its substrate to an isomeric form)

hyaluronidase; Hyazyme; spreading factor (an enzyme (trade name Hyazyme) that splits hyaluronic acid and so lowers its viscosity and increases the permeability of connective tissue and the absorption of fluids)

histaminase (enzyme that acts as a catalyst in converting histidine to histamine)

enterokinase (enzyme in the intestinal juice that converts inactive trypsinogen into active trypsin)

ADA; adenosine deaminase (an enzyme found in mammals that can catalyze the deamination of adenosine into inosine and ammonia)


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